Qualitative Health Research , 24 10 , In preparation: Due December In Press. Healthified spaces. For D. Andrews, M. Thorpe eds.
Psychogeographies, abjection and productions of culture: Kristeva and the psychic realm of physical cultural studies. In Michael L. Andrews Eds. Buling, R.
Driven to school: social fears and traffic environments. Walks, ed. London: Routledge. Transcending the White Straight Mind in Sport. Modern moral philosophy was dominated by the universalistic ethics of either consequentialism or deontology.
Over the last twenty years or so a relatively recent time slice in philosophical thought there has been a revival of virtue-theoretical work in mainstream ethics and in the ethics of sports. Some introductory remarks and indications of indicative sources in the literature, must suffice here.
Before we act as deontologists the German philosopher Kant is the key figure here , we must consider those duties usually in the form of principles or rights which we owe others in our transactions with them. The system of principles is usually thought to have its foundation in a super-rule often called the Golden rule — enshrined in Christian thought among others that one ought always to treat others with respect.
As previously stated, it has also found its way into sports coaching research and discourse 12 , The emergence of modern sport was an eruptive innovation rather than a logical prolongation of earlier practices. Bioethics and sport. The super bowl: Mythic spectacle. Helmuth Plessner studied laughter and weeping as fundamental human expressions. Consequently, the transformation that occurs in the experience-as-struggle results from the change in the mediating prism through which we understand or perceive situations to be.
To cheat, deceive, harm or lie to people is to disrespect them. It attempts to cash out a system of guides to right conduct for participants and coaches engaged in sports. In other cases see Lumpkin, Beller and Stoll, philosophers have simply assumed a deontological framework and applied to it to good effect without necessarily interrogating the theoretical basis upon which their sports ethics is based.
Fraleigh , for example, argues that boxing is immoral since it involves the intentional harming of another — even though they consent to that harm. While deontology whether as rights or duties remains a commonsense ethic for many people, there are others who think it simply starts from the wrong place.
It is a family of theories of the good, which justify actions according to their yielding the most favourable and least unfavourable consequences. In distinguishing good from bad we merely need to add up the potential consequences of different courses of action and act upon that which maximises good outcomes.
He also attempts to argue for controversial conclusions to the doping issue he is in favour of getting rid of bans and gender equity he is often in favour of non-sex segregated sports from a utilitarian perspective.
Consequentialism and deontology, while taking opposing foundations for the justification of moral action in sports as in life share certain important conceptual features. In the first instance they are universal in scope: moral rules apply in all places and times — it is just that they have different moral principles respect and utility.
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In both theoretical traditions, no one person or group must be favoured over another. Everyone is equally deserving of respect imagine a world in which football fans took this seriously! Finally, they share the idea that the moral rules have force: once you understand them you must act in a manner that brings the conclusion to life in your actions, for to fail to do so would be irrational, not just immoral.
But it is difficult to imagine any theory of ethics or religion for that matter which did not make such a claim.
In the recent past, there has been a revival of virtue theory in mainstream and applied ethics. Here ethics is based upon good character, and the good life will be lived by those who are in possession of a range of virtues such as courage, co-operativeness, sympathy, honesty, justice, reliability, and so on and the absence of vices such as cowardice, egoism, dishonesty, and so on. This language has an immediate application in the contexts of sports in theory but in practice, spitefulness, violence, greed, and the like often characterise elite sports.
Moreover, we often question the integrity of certain coaches or officials just as we chastise players who deceive the officials. This sketch of underlying ethical theory and its application to sports is not merely suggestive, it is also a rather traditional one. Scholars have more recently been questioning an exciting array of issues: the use of genetic engineering in sports; the place of adventurous activities in a risk avoiding culture; the role of sports in sustaining and subverting communities, identities and sexualities; environmentalist ethics for sports in a global world; ethical audits of sports organisations and cultures; and much more.
The literature concerning sport is extensive. Historically important and contemporary books in the field of ethics and sport notably include the following:. A series on philosophical and social scientific ethics of sport is edited by McNamee, M.