An Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology: An Introduction

An Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology: An Introduction
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English Usage: Vocabulary-1 (Roots/ Etymology)

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An Introduction

The first three chapters invoke topics having to do with word formation, without ever systematically treating the topic. Copy to clipboard Close. The great etymologist Walter W. Malkiel Main St.

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This work introduces renowned linguistics scholar Anatoly Liberman's comprehensive dictionary and bibliography of the etymology of English words. The English etymological dictionaries published in the past claim to have solved the mysteries of. recacommist.tk: An Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology: An Introduction (​): Anatoly Liberman: Books.

Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Durkin notes that 'air kiss' is attested once in , and then again from on [68]. Even in cases where etymologists might seem to be on steadier ground, like coinages, for instance, problems can arise e. The chapter also covers topics like homonymy and polysemy and how these relationships can change with time , merger in form and meaning e. English 'melt' stems from two separate Old English verbs , splits in word form e. English 'flour' and 'flower' stem from the same word , merger followed by split as in the history of English 'council' and 'counsel', which merged in Middle English, and then split again later , and homonymic clash.

The first three chapters invoke topics having to do with word formation, without ever systematically treating the topic. Chapter 4, 'Word formation' , therefore offers such a systematic treatment.

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It first considers affixation and related issues e. The final section of the chapter deals with arbitrary and non-arbitrary linguistic signs, covering onomatopoeia, animal names, and expressive formations, among other phenomena.

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Chapter 5, 'Lexical borrowing' , is the first of two chapters focused on borrowing. It lays out some of the basic concepts and terminology e. Chapter 6, 'The mechanisms of borrowing' , continues the discussion of borrowing, discussing the issues of basic vocabulary, language shift, borrowings from multiple languages as in cases like archaic English 'pease', yielding Modern English 'pea', which was originally borrowed into Old English from post-classical Latin, but also reflects French influence, as it contains a diphthong, not a monophthong like the Latin source , semantic influence, how to tell that borrowing has taken place, and lexical borrowings and code-switching.

Chapter 7, 'Change in word form' , largely deals with sound change, both regular Grimm's Law, Verner's Law, the Great Vowel Shift and sporadic metathesis , as well as what Durkin calls 'associative change in word form' , e.

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It also touches on the question of 'how regular are regular sound changes? The discussion in the last section is based on etymologies like those for 'purse', where the initial [p] is unexpected; 'maple tree', which in Durkin's view is probably the 'result of analogy with 'apple tree'' ; and 'polecat', which remains etymologically problematic, due largely to the 'multiplicity of form types which have not been satisfactorily reconciled with one another' Chapter 8, 'Semantic change' , covers change in meaning. Phenomena discussed in this chapter include types of semantic change e.

au.sasysopamuno.tk This last issue is particularly interesting, as some scholars, e. Sihler , see semantic change as largely patternless, but others, like Traugott and Dasher , argue that certain patterns can indeed be discerned. The discussion here is again based on various English etymologies, e.

An Analytic Dictionary Of English Etymology An Introduction

English 'nick' in the sense 'to make a notch or cut in something', which closely resembles words in some other Germanic languages e. Middle Dutch 'nicken', 'to bow, to bend' and Middle High German 'nicken', 'to bend, press down' , which suggests an etymological connection, but Durkin rejects this idea on the grounds that 'no convincing semantic connection can be made' between the English form and the other Germanic words The final section of the chapter addresses the role of extralinguistic factors in etymology, cf.

Malkiel The final thematic chapter of the book, 'Etymology and names' , deals with questions like names and non-linguistic history, names as etymons, and names as evidence for word meaning, among others. The 'Conclusion' recaps some of the argumentation of the book.

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It offers a lucid, careful discussion of the main principles of etymology, and illustrates them with copious examples. It also nicely contextualizes etymology within the field of historical linguistics as a whole. I have already drawn on this book in preparing classroom lectures and discussions, and can easily envision building a course around this book. There are some flaws, however. There are some odd gaps in the bibliography, as some important recent works e. One could also of course quibble about the examples Durkin has chosen to illustrate his arguments; English 'key', for example, has a fascinating etymology that could have been included in the discussions of sound change or loan words, among other places in the work.

See Markey , Liberman , Vennemann , or Pierce forthcoming on this particular etymology.

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Or consider the history of English 'jeep', which is most likely derived either from the abbreviation 'G. There are also a handful of minor slips, e.

The future of etymological dictionaries

Traugott and Dasher's work on semantic change originally appeared in , not Such objections aside, this book deserves a place on every etymologist's shelves. Richard Page. Review article on Vennemann Lingua Brinton, Laurel and Elizabeth Closs Traugott.