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Versuch einer Merkmalsanalyse. In: Siedlungen der Kultur mit Linearkeramik in Europa. Internationales Kolloquium. November Nitra, — Tompa, F. Vizdal, M.
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Historica Carpatica 21, — Vizdal, J. Vizdal and M. Vizdal contributed considerably to our knowledge of the Late Neolithic development in Eastern Slovakia. Each of them yielded a wide range of ceramic material, with painted, stroked, or plastic decoration. The existing analogies point to far reaching interconnections both with the area of Lower Poland and the North-eastern Hungary. Despite certain similarities, it still seems that each of these three areas developed own cultural facies and maintained some distinctive traits.
Vizdal a; M. Vizdal ; An evidence thereof is the occurrence of incised spirals, stroked ornament, black painted shards, collared vessels with a ring-shaped swell on the neck a. In total, pottery fragments were re-evaluated at this site. My gratitude also goes to Doc. Scale - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8; scale — 6; in the drawing 7 the scale is included. That means, we can speak about the use of a decoration element typical of the Lengyel culture, but applied on local-style beakers ibid.
Within the frame of this motif one can point out a certain detail. All the beakers appear to be local products. Vizdal a, Abb.
Vizdal , Obr. Vizdal ; M. XLIX: 2. As mentioned by J. According to evaluations by M. Painted pottery, both that with red painted surface 35 pcs and that one with black motif of broad bands 9 pcs , occurred relatively seldom. In connection with undecorated pottery we will focus on collared vessels with a ring-shaped swell below the rim. Several neck fragments bear typical plastic lugs; notched rims could not be detected.
Within the frame of this site we still would like to point out several ceramic elements, which might indicate a somewhat later chronological position than that mentioned above. Kaczanowska , 9, Tab. One of them bears along the rim a black painted band, and is equipped with a small handle J. This vessel type could remind of the nascent Malice forms. In the end we still would like to mention a lid M.
From the total amount of shards decorated in this manner 38 pcs we could obtain data as follows. The predominant quadruple stroke occurred on pottery which was rather coarse, but manufactured in high quality. Supposedly it was some larger amphora-shaped vessels.
Similarly decorated is also the stroked pottery of the Malice culture mostly by the help of a three- or four-point tool , these vessels are covered with engobe on their surface. According to M. Alexandra Anders and Prof. Scale — 2, 3, 4; scale — 1. Vizdal a, Tab.
A few shards come as well from a later excavation Vizdal b, Obr. XLI: 4, 5; , Taf. In painted pottery we can distinguish the red paint applied on the whole surface of vessels, and the black paint creating a motif of broad bands. Red paint stayed preserved on three vessels, but some others can be still supposed. Black paint is known from two vessels. The other black painted vessel represents a conical bowl on a strongly conical hollow pedestal. The bowl bears a notched rim, and on the body there are two lugs in form of so-called bird beaks. Similar association with this group we would also see in the occurrence of beakers with round belly and high, wide opening neck.
The Malice culture could be parallel to following pottery shapes. Small lid decorated with deep strokes, in which we can see a certain connection with the decoration in so-called Malice style Vizdal a, Tab. LVIII: 5. From this site we know as well of oval clay frying pans with handle Vizdal a, Tab. LV: 1, 2 , in one case equipped with notched rim Vizdal , Obr. This association, however, cannot be fully proved. LIII: 2. Scale — 1, 2, 3; scale — 4; in the drawing 5 the scale is included.
The piriform vessel decorated with triple-stroke ornaments bears a triangular decoration motif Fig.
Likewise, also another black painted fragment Fig. The presence of pottery fragments bearing white paint on red surface 22 pcs. The belly fragment of a vessel decorated with branch motif Fig. A typological similarity between these vessels can be supposed, too. Distinctive are as well two fragments of hollow pedestals Fig.
In the end we would like to mention a small round fragment with worn edges Fig. Vizdal, another such handle decorated with wart-shaped lugs comes from surface surveys in Vizdal , Tab. At all three sites one can register the occurrence of painted, incised, stroke-ornamented pottery or pottery decorated with plastic ornaments. In the end we will sum up several main traits, by help of which we will try to substantiate their chronological position within the frame of the Late Neolithic development.
As a possible mixed character of material at these sites must be supposed, the dating is based on chronologically sensitive and typologically predominant elements. This site has been usually put into connection with the Malice culture.
This would correspond above all to stroke-ornamented pottery, namely that with predominant quadruple-stroke technique and related decoration motifs. White paint on red surface, which is typical of this later period, neither occurs here yet. Vizdal ; , must be left meanwhile open because under the present state of research we cannot take a closer stand on this matter.
We drew this conclusion basing on several new detections acquired by re-examining the material. This allows us to classify the material, when not in entirety, then at least a part of, to be more recent within the Late Neolithic development.