Its proper use follows a set of fairly complex rules as in these examples provided by Bruce Donaldson: . Another point of view is that this construction is not really an example of a "double negative" but simply a grammatical template for negation. The second nie cannot be understood as a noun or adverb as can, e.
It is a grammatical particle with no independent meaning that happens to be spelled and pronounced the same as the embedded nie , meaning "not", through historical accident. The second nie is used if and only if the sentence or phrase does not already end with nie or another negating adverb. Afrikaans shares with English the property that two negatives make a positive. While double negation is still found in the Low Franconian dialects of west Flanders e.
In Belgian Dutch dialects, however, there are still some widely used expressions like nooit niet "never not" for "never". Similar to some dialectal English, Bavarian employs both single and double negation, with the latter denoting special emphasis. The German emphatic "niemals! Another exception is Yiddish. Due to Slavic influence, the double and sometimes even triple negative is quite common.
In Latin a second negative word appearing along with non turns the meaning into a positive one: ullus means "any", nullus means "no", non In the same way, umquam means "ever", numquam means "never", non In many Romance languages a second term indicating a negative is required. In French , the usual way to express negation is to employ two words, e.
The second term was originally an emphatic; pas , for example, derives from the Latin passus , meaning "step", so that French Je ne marche pas and Catalan No camino pas originally meant "I will not walk a single step.
In Northern Catalan , no may be omitted in colloquial language, and Occitan , which uses non only as a short answer to questions. In Venetian , the double negation no These exemplify Jespersen's cycle.
The Italian , Portuguese and Romanian languages usually employ doubled negative correlatives. In Italian, a second following negative particle non turns the phrase into a positive one, but with a slightly different meaning. For instance, while both Voglio mangiare "I want to eat" and Non voglio non mangiare "I don't want not to eat" mean "I want to eat", the latter phrase more precisely means "I'd prefer to eat".
Other Romance languages employ double negatives less regularly. In Asturian , an extra negative particle is used with negative adverbs: Yo nunca nun lu viera "I had not never seen him" means "I have never seen him" and A mi tampoco nun me presta "I neither do not like it" means "I do not like it either". Standard Catalan and Galician also used to possess a tendency to double no with other negatives, so Jo tampoc no l'he vista or Eu tampouco non a vira , respectively "I neither have not seen her" meant "I have not seen her either".
That practice is dying out.
In , Italy held a referendum on whether to repeal a recent law that allowed divorce. Voters were said to have been confused in that in order to support divorce, they needed to vote 'no' on the referendum which was worded so that 'yes' would support repeal. This referendum was defeated, and without this confusion, it was said that it would have been defeated more decisively.
In spoken Welsh , the word ddim not often occurs with a prefixed or mutated verb form that is negative in meaning: Dydy hi ddim yma word-for-word, "Not-is she not here" expresses "She is not here" and Chaiff Aled ddim mynd word-for-word, "Not-will-get Aled not go" expresses "Aled is not allowed to go". Negative correlatives can also occur with already negative verb forms. In literary Welsh, the mutated verb form is caused by an initial negative particle, ni or nid.
http://nonamepos.myerp.work/erp/janyroz/4523-sistema-de-citas.php The particle is usually omitted in speech but the mutation remains: [Ni] wyddai neb word-for-word, "[Not] not-knew nobody" means "Nobody knew" and [Ni] chaiff Aled fawr o bres word-for-word, "[Not] not-will-get Aled lots of money" means "Aled will not get much money". This is not usually regarded as three negative markers, however, because the negative mutation is really just an effect of the initial particle on the following word. Doubled negatives are perfectly correct in Ancient Greek. Those constructions apply only when the negatives all refer to the same word or expression.
In Modern Greek , negative concord is standard and more commonly used. For example, the sentence 'You pl. It depends simply on the mood of the speaker, and the latter being is considered slightly more polite. In Slavic languages other than Slavonic , multiple negatives are grammatically correct ways to express negation, and a single negative is often incorrect. In complex sentences, every part that could be grammatically negated should be negative. In Czech, it is also common to use three or more negations.
A single negation, while syntactically correct, may result in a very unusual meaning or make no sense at all. Nobody" but it would not have its plain English meaning. Likewise, in Slovenian , saying "I do not know anyone" Ne poznam kogarkoli in place of "I do not know no one" Ne poznam nikogar has the connotation "I do not know just anyone ": I know someone important or special. As with most synthetic satem languages double negative is mandatory [ citation needed ] in Latvian and Lithuanian.
Furthermore, all verbs and indefinite pronouns in a given statement must be negated, so it could be said that multiple negative is mandatory in Latvian.
Double or multiple negatives are grammatically required in Hungarian with negative pronouns: Nincs semmim word for word: "[doesn't-exists] [nothing-of-mine]", and translates literally as "I do not have nothing" means "I do not have anything". Negative pronouns are constructed by means of adding the prefixes se-, sem-, and sen- to interrogative pronouns.
Something superficially resembling double negation is required also in Finnish , which uses the auxiliary verb ei to express negation. These suffices are, however, never used alone, but always in connection with ei. This phenomenon is commonplace in Finnish, where many words have alternatives that are required in negative expressions, for example edes for jopa "even" , as in jopa niin paljon meaning "even so much", and ei edes niin paljoa meaning "not even so much".
Negative verb forms are grammatically required in Turkish phrases with negative pronouns or adverbs that impart a negative meaning on the whole phrase. Japanese employs litotes to phrase ideas in a more indirect and polite manner. Thus, one can indicate necessity by emphasizing that not doing something wouldn't be proper. Of course, indirectness can also be employed to put an edge on one's rudeness as well. Mandarin Chinese also employs litotes in a like manner.
Questions: two-step questions Questions: typical errors Questions: wh- questions Questions: yes-no questions Are you feeling cold? Do you think double negatives should be considered incorrect? East or eastern ; north or northern? Black Feminism Reimagined. British and American English Dialect Double negatives and usage Formal and informal language Newspaper headlines Register Slang Standard and non-standard language Swearing and taboo expressions.
Double negatives nearly always resolve to a positive meaning even in colloquial speech, while triple negatives resolve to a negative meaning. However, more than triple negatives are frequently perceived as obscure and rarely encountered. Many languages, including all living Germanic languages, French, Welsh and some Berber and Arabic dialects, have gone through a process known as Jespersen's cycle , where an original negative particle is replaced by another, passing through an intermediate stage employing two particles e. A similar development to a circumfix from double negation can be seen in non- Indo-European languages, too: for example, in Maltese , kiel "he ate" is negated as ma kielx "he did not eat", where the verb is preceded by a negative particle ma - "not" and followed by the particle - x , which was originally a shortened form of xejn "nothing" - thus, "he didn't eat nothing".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the linguistic construct. For other uses, see Double Negative disambiguation. Plurals Prefixes in English Suffixes frequentative. Word types. Abbreviations Capitalization Comma Hyphen. Variant usage. Main article: Jespersen's Cycle. An Introduction to Language, Seventh Edition. Merriam-Webster Online. Accessed 29 Sept. Houghton Mifflin Co, Retrieved In Horn, LR ed. The expression of negation. The expression of cognitive categories. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter-Mouton.
American University. Read on…". Oxford Dictionaries Blog. Donaldson, Walter de Gruyter, , p. Syntax and mutation".
The Syntax of Welsh. Negative adverbs are words like barely , seldom , hardly , rarely, and scarcely. Occasionally, a double negative can be used in a subtle and indirect way to express a positive idea. Double negatives are common in other languages. Menu Dictionary. Everything After Z by Dictionary. What are negative nouns? What is a negative adverb? The solution? Use one or the other, just not both together. Nuance Occasionally, a double negative can be used in a subtle and indirect way to express a positive idea.