Jesus Christ, Public Defender (Third Edition)

Tom Devine: Committed Catholic, defender of justice
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The penitent seeking forgiveness was a form of evangelization to non-believers in a far-off land. The theory of combining pilgrimage with warfare in the defense of Christianity led to the genesis of the concept of crusade. The reform Pope Gregory VII believed in spiritual authority over temporal rule and further developed the relationship with knighthood in defense of the Church during the Investiture Controversy. But it was Pope Urban II who formally invoked penitential warfare - warfare in the service and defense of the Church for the "remission of your sins" - remissionem peccatorum vestrorum , when he called for the First Crusade on November 27, There were eight major Crusades that departed Europe for the Holy Land, with several other campaigns interspersed between and This paper will primarily focus on the successful First Crusade, review the Third and Fourth Crusades, and present a capsule of the remaining five.

Robert the Monk of Rheims attended the Council of Clermont and refined the Gesta Francorum in a Christian context - in the light of Divine Revelation and as a fulfillment of the Council; his treatise was perhaps the most popular in the medieval era. The Pope nominated him to be the Papal Legate and head of the Crusade, to ensure that the Church would lead the effort. The choice was an excellent one, as Adhemar of Puy proved to be fair-minded, calm, and diplomatic in his attempt to coordinate the major armies that crossed Europe in different routes and assembled in Constantinople by early May of While figures vary, it is estimated that roughly 60, Europeans were inspired to take up the cross and begin the expedition to Constantinople in the First Crusade.

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Those who took the vow for the Crusade were primarily motivated by their love of Christ. Religious fervor was the principal source of inspiration throughout the Crusade. Raymond of St.

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Gilles, Count of Toulouse, was the first who "took up the cross. The army left France in October of and crossed the Alps into Dalmatia and the Balkan states, through Thessalonica, reaching Constantinople in April of Emperor Alexius deftly handled the Crusaders and dispatched them across the Bosporus Strait into Asia. During the seige, Alexius sent a flotilla of ships from the west, which induced the Turks to negotiate with the Emperor, who took back Nicaea in June of The capture of Nicaea was the high point of Greco-Frankish cooperation.

Following a victory at Dorylaeum which routed the Turks, the Crusaders faced the arduous task of crossing the mountainous terrain of Anatolia modern Turkey in Asia Minor. The goal to reach Antioch took months to accomplish, and was marked by the Crusaders taking two different routes.

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Baldwin of Boulogne, Godfrey's younger brother, went through Armenian Cilicia, and, setting out on his own conquest, captured the County of Edessa by the Euphrates River. Edessa in Osroene, Northern Syria and Mesopotamia, had changed political hands many times, but it was one of the earliest centers of Christianity, preserving the history of the conversion of King Abgar, the Mandylion, an image on a cloth of the face of Jesus, and the evangelization by St.

Jude Thaddeus. Edessa had also become an important school of theology for Syriac Christianity, as home to such writers as St. Ephrem of Syria. Baldwin was soon invited by the people to rule. The first Crusader state, the County of Edessa , was established on March 10, The first Patriarch of Antioch was St. Peter himself, and following the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD, the city became important to early Christianity. Followers of Christ were first called Christians in Antioch Acts Matthew probably wrote his Gospel there, and Paul set out on three missionary journeys from Antioch.

Ignatius of Antioch established the order of Bishop, Priest, and Deacon for the early Church, the pattern which still exists today. The crusaders suffered a severe winter, and it would take nine months before the walls could be stormed. Rivalries began, as Bohemond of Taranto wanted Antioch for himself, while Raymond of Toulouse argued that it should be handed back to the Byzantines, as agreed upon in Constantinople.

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Following a bribe by Bohemond of one of the Turks, the Crusaders scaled the walls and invaded Antioch on June 3, The town became a bloodbath with the massacre of the Turks. Just as they had taken over Antioch, they were besieged within the city by Kerbogha and an invading Turkish army from Mosul. Trapped within the walls, disease and discouragement set in. Emperor Alexius had been crossing Asia Minor to aid the Crusaders, but was dissuaded on June 20 at Philomelium by Stephen of Blois, who had fled Antioch when he thought the Crusaders were doomed.

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Alexius turned back, leaving the Crusaders alone to face the enemy. This proved destructive to the Byzantine-Crusader alliance. Taken as divine intervention, the finding rallied Crusader morale. Spirits uplifted, the knights charged out of the city on June 28, with Raymond of Aguilers carrying the Holy Lance. Mounted on their horses, and, pressing next to each other, the Crusaders routed the Turks.

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The cavalry charge was a formidable weapon for the Crusaders throughout their campaigns in the Holy Land. However, Adhemar died from an illness on August 1, and his leadership was sorely missed. When the Fatimids of Egypt heard of the collapse of the Turks, the vizier al-Afdal captured Jerusalem on August 26, Bohemond remained in Antioch, having achieved his goal of taking Antioch for himself, but this produced delay of the pilgrimage to Jerusalem and proved devastating to Roman and Byzantine relations. The second Crusader state, the Principality of Antioch , was established on November 5, Raymond of Toulouse was left the leader of the Crusaders and finally set out for Jerusalem January 13, Raymond walked barefoot, appropriate for a leader of a pilgrimage.

He traveled safely on the coast to Tripoli, Lebanon, where the Emir of Tripoli purchased immunity and gave them supplies.

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While there, he discovered the Maronites, an Eastern Catholic community in the mountains of Lebanon that had resisted Turkish rule, and who confirmed loyalty to the Pope in Before their arrival, the Fatimid governor evacuated the Christians from the city, but allowed the Jews to stay. Raymond of Toulouse set up post on Mount Zion.

Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine, was joined by his brother, Eustace of Boulogne, and Tancred, and together they covered the northwest to the Jaffa Gate. Morale sank, as an initial attack by the Crusaders failed, and water became scarce.

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A Genoese fleet arrived with materials to help them scale the walls of the heavily fortified city. But then the priest Peter Desiderius had a vision of the deceased Bishop Adhemar, who urged the Crusaders to fast and then walk barefoot around the city to atone for their sins. It was Godfrey of Bouillon who first breached the northern wall on July 15, , and the Crusaders flooded into the city of Jerusalem. Many inhabitants fled the city or purchased their freedom.

The Fatimid governor and about who had withdrawn into the Tower of David paid ransom to Raymond of Toulouse for their lives and were allowed to escape. Maddened after three years of frustration and suffering, the Crusaders massacred both Muslim and Jew within the city. The Crusaders completed their pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre and thanked God in a solemn ceremony. On July 22, , Godfrey of Bouillon was chosen as the ruler of Jerusalem. One of his first actions was to establish canons in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Only the vow to fulfill God's will on the pilgrimage to Jerusalem could have sustained the crusaders, who were consistently outnumbered and faced near-starvation during the bitter winter at Antioch.

Fulcher of Chartres reported that Jerusalem was left with only " knights and as many footmen" to defend Jerusalem and the surrounding area. Veneration of the True Cross was a prerequisite prior to the Crusaders entering battle.

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Godfrey consolidated the territory around Jerusalem. Hearing of an advancing Egyptian force to recover Jerusalem, the Crusaders launched a surprise attack and routed the Egyptians near Ascalon in August Godfrey died after only a year on July 18, Emissaries were sent to his brother Baldwin, the ruler of the County of Edessa, who gave Edessa to his cousin Baldwin of Le Bourg and headed for Jerusalem.

The Latin Crusader States lived a fragile existence, for most of the Crusaders, having fulfilled their vows, went home to Europe. But they were able to survive because of Muslim disunity. Several crusaders, among them Stephen of Blois who had retreated at Antioch, arrived in to complete their pilgrimage vow in reaching Jerusalem and assist Baldwin in consolidating the region.

Stephen was killed at the Second Battle of Ramla in May , achieving an honorable death. King Baldwin secured a lifeline to Europe with the capture of several Mediterranean ports, including the natural harbor of Acre in , which would become the center of trade for the Kingdom. He also captured Beirut and Sidon, Lebanon in and incorporated the cities into the Kingdom of Jerusalem. King Baldwin I was concerned about the dearth of inhabitants in Jerusalem, for there were not enough people to carry on the daily activities and function of the city.

He learned that there were many Christians living in servitude beyond the Jordan in Arabia. He invited them to live in the Holy City and promised them freedom and improved living conditions. They readily accepted his offer and the city benefited from their arrival. The only one to stay loyal to Emperor Alexius, he was invited to Constantinople and turned Latakia over to the Byzantines.

Upon his return, he set his sights on Tripoli, and built a fortress called Mount Pilgrim near the city. Mary Latin. In he captured ancient Byblos, named Jubail in Arabic, where the first Crusader castle of Gibelet was built. The fourth Crusader State, the County of Tripoli , was established. He brought his wife Morphia of Melitene, Armenia and their daughters with him to Jerusalem, and appointed his cousin Joscelin of Courtenay as the new Count of Edessa.

During his reign he helped found the Templar Knights and granted them space in the Temple of Solomon. A major victory was the capture of Tyre in Lebanon during the summer of Prior to his death in , Baldwin II designated his oldest daughter Melisende , her husband Fulk, and 2 year-old grandson Baldwin as his heirs. Melisende as Queen regnant and her husband Fulk V of Anjou were anointed and crowned, the first coronation in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on September 14, They had two sons, Baldwin and Amaury.

en.nyfabopipojy.ml Baldwin III became sole ruler over Easter season in , with his mother continuing in an advisory capacity.